As far as I see, you have the several options:
1. you can use raspbootin (I've rewritten it for 64 bit) to avoid SD card usage and boot your kernel over serial line
2. for debugging, you can compile in my mini-debugger and use that over serial line with any terminal emulator (even with rasbootcom)
3. most complicated, but most promosing for fully featured IDE itegration is to compile a gdb remote stub
into you kernel. In theory gdbserver has a patch
for AArch64, but honestly I haven't tried that. There's also a (not very helpful) description on ARM info center on how to use JTAG in virtual ethernet/tty mode with gdb
4. if you are fine with a virtual environment, qemu has a built-in disassembler (-d int,in_asm) and built-in gdb server (-S -s) which you can use without modifying your kernel just out-of-the-box.