yes, signal conditioning is built into such devices. They take the very short impulses the IR-LED emits, (normally at a rate of 38 KHz) and turns them (stretches them) into a stream of bits that can be decoded with a normal UART, such a one as the PI has. (the format of the bit stream depends on the transmitter).
Depending on the type of receiver it is tuned for a specific frequency of pulses, but the resulting baud-rate is often 1200 Bps.
As for this one, I'm afraid 9Ym4 sounds like a production date (year 9 month 4), so no use at all googling for that! Maybe it has a real designator on the back. All of these tranceivers are very alike, so this datasheet is as good a starting point as any. http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/1244274.pdf
But note that most of them have 3 leads, and this one appears to have four, with two connected. Its probably of Chinese origin.
The output is normally (often) open collector, so you should use a pullup to 3V3, but if its using a pullup to its VCC (normally 5V) or its not using a pullup (TTL drive) then just place a 10K resistor in series with the RxD input of the PI, and that will protect the PI effectively. Also, the VCC of the receiver must be decoupled with a large elco, which is the case on your board.
So yes, you can use it, but it will be a bit of a puzzle!
On the software side, be aware that the PI boots up with the UART used for terminal interfacing, so the UART is "in use" and has to be "freed from that use" to be able to use it for your own purpose. But there are many examples on how to use the UART, with for example python.