How's your budget?
I've seen setups where a decent webcam is connected (though an intermediary device) to a wifi setup, so that the camera's picture is shown elsewhere in real-time.
What if you did something like this:
Each camera -> one R-Pi:
R-pi will process data, crunch numbers, continuously save the last x seconds; if it sees something that your algorithms decide is a meteor, it will save (in addition to last x seconds) the next y seconds until after the meteor is no longer visible, and then save the packet of video with timestamp.
You could then use the data however you wanted; you could analyze it further, or you could even set up a way to connect your nodes to do analysis on the spot. You could use a set of wireless access points with decent antennas, though that might be expensive to reach ten miles (or maybe not, if it's a population-free area with line-of-sight, in which case cantennas would do the work for you just fine). You could use one of those satellite internet usb plugins to send the other nodes, or yourself, the video files when they appear, so you could analyze the data further without waiting for months. Linux tools such as scp would make such a process pretty damn seamless.
My point is that the extremely low cost of the R-Pi might make it possible to buy one for each camera, and that gives you a pretty sweet ability to process things on the spot and collect data without physically visiting the setups.