I don't see why not,
You can run USB extenders to the USB ports, an ethernet extender to the ethernet port, HDMI extender to the HDMI port, headset extender to the headphone jack.
The audio in will require some consideration, if you really want it you'll need to add an internal USB soundcard.
I don't think the pi can do anything with the thunderbolt ports, so you'll want to blank those off.
Power + power button: if you want to keep the mains in you'll need an internal converter from two pin mains plug to 5V 2.5A having the button power on and off the Pi will be an interesting challenge, there are solutions on this forum or available to purchase.
Building Management Systems Engineer.