I just had this happen to me too. I was streaming video in chrome and decided to reduce screen resolution to try to improve quality. I didn't stop streaming before letting the shutdown take place.
This made a bad file / innode in the chrome temp folder.
I keep a spare rasbien os on another flash drive for fixing these kinds of issues. I booted with a working install and ran a disk check on the corrupted disk file systems using fsck. The issue was on root.
There are lots of resources on doing this. There can be data loss, most of the time it's on corrupt files that are no good anyways. I personally haven't had any major issues using fsck. A backup is generally a good idea. I also put important files in a different partition than root as i seem to corrupt it a lot. Maybe because I'm using an SSD.
You have to identify where to tell fsck to operate. I like the blkid command. You need your corrupted drive mounted. Auto mount seems to work good these days if you just plug in the drive after the GUI is running.
Boot and root should be called something like bootfs and rootfs. Using blkid you will be look for something like rootfs and the mount location something like /dev/sda2 this could be different for you.
You need to be sure your going to check the right drive ! You don't want to try to check the root system that is operating. I believe it will warn you.
It will prompt you for input if it finds anything
Anyways, that's what I did and I'm back streaming in 720p
Hope that helps someone